Since STEPHEN KRASHEN first proposed the affective filter Hypothesis 1980 considerable amount of research has been done to test it’s claims while the weight of that research is still not definitive, the hypothesis has gained increasing support. Cultural background not appropriate for adults learners to lose face in front of family members, peers or younger student.
The acquisition-learning distraction is the most fundamental of all the hypothesis in Krashen’s theory and the most widely between linguists and language practitioners. According to Krashen there are to independent systems of second language performance “ the learned system” and “ the acquired system” or acquisition is the product of a subconscious process very similar to process children undergo. When they acquire their first language. If requires meaningful interaction to the target language natural communication in which speakers the concentrated not in the form of their utterances, but in the communicative act.
The learned system or learning is the product of formal instruction and it compile a conscious process which results it conscious knowledge about the language for example language or grammar rules. According to Krasen’s, learning is less important than acquisition,
The affective Filter hypothesis embodies Krashen’s view that a number of affective variables play a facilitative but non causal role in second language acquisition. These variables includes : motivation, self confidence and anxiety
Krashen claims that learners with high motivation, self confidence, a good self image and a low level of anxiety are better equipped for success second language acquisition. Low motivation, low self esteemed debilitating anxiety can combine to raise the affective filter and from a mental block that parents comprehensible in put from berry used for acquisition. On the other hand positive affect necessary but not sufficient on it’s own, for acquisition to take place.
The aims of these paper is :
a. student will explore the importance of the affective filter hypothesis in second language acquisition.,
b. student will learn and known about the basic factors of affective filter hypothesis
a.1 The Affective Filter
the affective filter is an impediment for learning or acquisition caused by negative emotional responses to one’s environment. It is hypothesis of second language acquisition theory and a field of interest in education psychology. The Affective filter is an imaginary barrier which prevents learners from acquiring language from the available input. Affective refers to such thing as motivation, need attitude, and emotional states. A teacher who is angry, anxious or bored may filter out input, making it unavailable for acquisition thus depending on the learner state of mind or disposition, the filter limits what is noticed and what is it acquired. The filter will be up when the learners is stressed, self conscious or unmotivated. It will be done when learner relaxed and have motivation.
a.2. Major components of the theory
According to affective filter hypothesis, certain emotion such as anxiety, self – doubt with the process of acquiring of second language. The function as a speaker between the speaker and the listener that reduces the amount of language input, the listener is able to understand. These negative emotion prevent efficient processing of language input.
a.3. The Affective Filter Hypothesis
This hypothesis state that attitudinal variables relating to success in second language acquisition generally relate to language acquisition but not necessary to language learning.
The research literature indicate that certain affective cartable are related to second language achievement. Performers with certain types of motivation usually but not always “integrative” and with good self images do better in second language acquisition . seem to be those which encourage lower anxiety levels.
Dulay and Burt have suggested that attitudinal factors may relate to second language acquisition in the following way: performers with optimal attitudes have a lower affective filter. A low filter means that the performer is more open to the input.
Thus having the right attitudes may do to things for second language acquires : it will encourage them to try to get more input to interact with speakers of the target language with confidence and also to be more receptive to the input they get.
To summarize, we have hypothesis that certain attitudinal variables related primarily to subconscious language acquisition and that they have to effects :
- They actually encourage input; people who are motivated and who have a positive self- image will seek and obtain more input.
- They contribute to a lower filter, given two acquire with the exact same input, the one with a lower filter will acquire more.
B. The basic factor that underline the affective filter hypothesis.
it seems evident that a motivated student will learn better than another. By motivation what do we mean by motivation and how might we measure it? Moreover, do we conceive of motivation as being something that the learner already possesses, prior to their arrival in the classroom, or it is something that subject to change? And in the later case, what can we do to change in positive way?
General consideration psychologists distinguish motivation to two parts :
a. basic motivation : hunger, thirst. Etc
b. psychological motivation
which although they may be derived from the former, though conditioning and learning are not to directly turned to survival and reproduction. We should also note that according to Freudian psychology, motivation are not always conscious and negative or positive feelings about given indirectly related to the activity itself. For example: Louis Wolfson, schizophrenic, learn foreign language such as German Hebrew, and French compulsively so as to escape from the found of his mother’s voice.
c. Integrative motivation
a learner has in interest to learning second language because of sincere and perform interest in the people and culture represented by the other language group.
d. Instrument motivation
Here the learners has an interest second language practical advantages that will accurse to someone who spoke it.
Low personal anxiety a low classroom anxiety are more conducive to SLA. Caused better result to acquirer to second language itself or class disguised.
b.3. Self Confidence
The servers who has confidence to themselves and a good self image, hanging to make better in acquiring the second language
Based on this paper we can take the conclusions
1. The affective filter hypothesis claims that the effect or pretense of course in the outside condition of natural language acquisition
2. Input as primary causative variable in second language acquisition, where as the affective variables deal with block or facility to reaching or sending input to expedient language acquisition.
3. In the effective filter hypothesis connected with input hypothesis, then the affective filter with input become a guided for teacher to find out the good way in teaching the second language.
1. The material of second language acquisition by Krashen
2. www. Sk. Com. Br/sk – Krash. html